Task 1: The chart below gives information about the age of women in Australia when they give birth to their first child in 1966, 1986 and 2006
In 1966, around 65% of women aged between 20 and 24 gave birth to their first child, making this the most popular age range. The proportions of women belonging to the remaining age groups were noticeably lower, at only 40% (25-30), 37% (19 and under), 15% (30-34), 5% (30-39) and a negligible 2% (40+). Over the next 40 years, the patterns shifted as fewer young women decided to give birth, with the figure for the 19-and-under dropping markedly to 10%, and the 25-to-30 group also followed suit, having its rates decreasing to 35%. In contrast, the percentages of first birth givers aged between 25 and 30 and between 30 to 34 saw increases, amounting to 45%, and 50% respectively. An even more significant upward trend is evident in the 30-to-34 and 34-to-39 age groups when their figures rose at an exponential gradient, with the former rising to 50% and the latter to 30%. Finally, not many women wished to deliver babies at this later age of 40 or more, as the rates first plateaued at 2% in 1986 and marginally grew thereafter to 3% in 2006.
Task 2: Nowadays it is not only large companies that can make films. Digital technology enables anyone to produce films. Do you think it is a positive or negative development?
Unlike many years ago when cinematography is exclusive to large companies, films made by individuals using their own devices have enjoyed increasing popularity in recent years. I am of the opinion that this is more likely to have positive consequences.
The fact that filmmaking is increasingly more accessible has helped add variety to cinematography. Movies made by big companies, on the one hand, are restricted to a handful ofthemes and backgrounds, several of which are even heavily censored. On the other hand, films made by potential filmmakers, albeit amateur, transcend barriers of ethnicities and backgrounds. Around 400-500 movies are made by Hollywood every year, many of which are Americentricand revolve around superheroes, romance, thrillers and comedies. Meanwhile, with a phone sitting in our pockets and film editing applications at our disposal, that number can add up to millions, with more themes covered and a great array of settings shown.
Additionally, easy access to filming technology helps discover hidden talented people. Thanks to video-sharing platforms such as Youtube or Facebook, several unknown people have attained resounding success just by one or two short films. In Vietnam, for example, a lot of amateur movie-making teams have become overnight sensations by posting short comedies and web dramas onto their sites. Although those films are low-budget, they are well–received by the general public, and many aspiringactors, actresses, and directors are discovered and eventually shot to fame. The Sundance Film Festival, once a low-profilevenue for small-budget creators, has become a media extravaganza for new talents now that more and more independent movie creators are able to make films using their own devices.
exclusive: độc quyền
enjoy increasing popularity: càng ngày càng phổ biến
cinematography: điện ảnh
a handful of: một lượng ít
censor: kiểm duyệt
transcend: vượt qua
barrier: rào cản
Americentric: quá nghiêng về văn hóa Mỹ
revolve around: xoay quanh
an array of: một sự đa dạng
attain: đạt được
resounding success: thành công vang dội
overnight sensation: từ dùng để miêu tả những người nổi tiếng chỉ trong một thời gian ngắn
aspiring: có mong muốn
shot to fame: trở nên nổi tiếng
low-profile: ít có tiếng
media extravaganza: sự kiện truyền thông cực kì nổi tiếng
Task 1: The diagram below shows how ethanol fuel is produced from corn
The process commences when corn is harvested and stored in warehouses, before being ground by the use of a turbine-driven mill. Thereafter the ground corn, with the addition of an unspecified amount of water, is cooked within 4 hours in a cylindrical device before being fermented in another set of cylinders. The mixture is left for fermentation for 2 days (48 hours) and subsequently liquidised, with solid wastes being released as by-products. The liquidized substance, now called ethanol, is further purified under laboratory conditions for another 5 hours, after which it is stored in large containers and eventually transported to gas stations.
Task 2: Some people think that mental strength is the most important factor for success in sports. However, some others believe that it is more important to have strong and fit people. Discuss both views and give your opinions.
Some people are of the opinion that physical fitness is the key to success in sports. However, some others are opposed to this idea, claiming that mental toughness is of uttermost importance. From my perspective, both qualities are of great significance in equal measure, and I will further elaborate in this essay.
Physical strength has been commonly regarded as an important element in sports. Most sportspeople are required to be physically fit so that they are able to perform physically challenging actions commonly found in the majority of sports. Footballers, for example, spend on average 90 minutes of relentless physical manoeuvres, and this certainly requires brute strength and stamina. In some sports that involve building muscles such as weightlifting, fitness is instrumental in the overall success of a weightlifter, for more weights lifted are directly proportionate to how well he or she performs in a weightlifting competition.
A strong mentality, on the other hand, is also very essential for any professionals to be successful. As a matter of fact, virtually all sports entail intense competitions and pressure, and only strong-willed players who are able to handle those problems well attain great success. Elite athletes such as Roger Federer or Cristiano Ronaldo, for example, are perfect examples of players who remain calm and confident regardless of situations. Additionally, mental prowess has been proven to be a game-changing factor in deciding the outcome of a match. Even seeded players can bitterly lose to underdogs if stressed or pressured.
In conclusion, my firm conviction is that mental toughness is just as important as physical fitness in determining sporting success. In the future, with training integrating both physical and mental health becoming increasingly available, the sporting industry will be able to welcome generations of successful sports players who are physically fit and mentally prepared.
physical fitness: sự khỏe mạnh về mặt thể chất
mental toughness: sự dẻo dai về mặt tâm lý
uttermost importance: cực kì quan trọng; quan trọng hàng đầu
in equal measure: quan trọng như nhau
sportspeople: người chơi thể thao
physically fit: có thể chất tốt
physical manoeuver: sự vận động thể chất
brute strength and stamina: sức mạnh và sức chịu đựng khủng khiếp
instrumental in: cực kì quan trọng và cần thiết trong việc gì đó
proportionate to: tỉ lệ thuận
entail: bao gồm, chứa đựng
strong-willed: có ý chí tốt
elite athletes: vận động viên xuất sắc
mental prowess: khả năng xuât chúng về mặt tinh thần
game-changing: quan trọng, có khả năng quyê1t định kết quả
seeded player: vận động viên hạt giống
underdog: người yếu thế hơn
integrate: tích hợp