Đề Xuất 3/2023 # Ielts Academic Reading: Cambridge 7, Test 1: Reading Passage 2; Making Every Drop Count; With Top Solutions And Step # Top 3 Like | Maubvietnam.com

Đề Xuất 3/2023 # Ielts Academic Reading: Cambridge 7, Test 1: Reading Passage 2; Making Every Drop Count; With Top Solutions And Step # Top 3 Like

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This IELTS Reading post focuses on all the solutions for IELTS Cambridge 7 Test 1 Reading Passage 2, which is entitled ‘MAKING EVERY DROP COUNT’. This is a post primarily for IELTS candidates who have great problems in finding answers for the Academic Reading module. This post can guide you the best to comprehend each Reading answer without facing much difficulty. Tracing IELTS Reading answers is a gradual process and I sincerely hope this post can help you in your IELTS Reading preparation.

IELTS Cambridge 7 Test 1: AC Reading Module

Reading Passage 2:

The headline of the passage: MAKING EVERY DROP COUNT

Questions 14-20 (List of headings):

[In this question type, IELTS candidates are provided with a list of headings, usually identified with lower-case Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, etc,). A heading will refer to the main idea of the paragraph or section of the text. Candidates must find out the equivalent heading to the correct paragraphs or sections, which are marked with alphabets A, B, C and so forth. Candidates need to write the appropriate Roman numerals in the boxes on their answer sheets. There will always be two or three more headings than there are paragraphs or sections. So, some of the headings will not be used. It is also likely that some paragraphs or sections may not be included in the task. Generally, the first paragraph is an example paragraph that will be done for the candidates for their understanding of the task.

TIPS: Skimming is the best reading technique. You need not understand every word here. Just try to gather the gist of the sentences. That’s all. Read quickly and don’t stop until you finish each sentence. ]

Question 14: Paragraph A

In the first lines of paragraph A, the writer says, “The history of human civilisation is entwined with the history of the ways we have learned to manipulate water resources.”  

Then in lines 4-7, the writer mentions, “At the height of the Roman Empire, nine major systems, with an innovative layout of pipes and well-built sewers, supplied the occupants of Rome with as much water per person as is provided in many parts of the industrial world today.”

Here, the Roman Empire, nine major systems = ancient water supplies,

So, the answer is: xi (A description of ancient water supplies)

Question 15: Paragraph C

Paragraph C narrates the dangers to physical condition as the result of a shortage of pure water. The writer mentions in lines 4-7, “.. … . . more than one billion people lack access to clean drinking water: some two and half billion do not have adequate sanitation services. Preventable water-related diseases kill an estimated 10,000 to 20,000 children every day, .. . .. . .”

So, the answer is: vii (the relevance to health)

Question 16: Paragraph D

Paragraph D details about the environmental effects of water-shortage.

In lines 4-7 the writer mentions, “. . .. … . more than 20% of all freshwater fish species are now threatened or endangered because dams and water withdrawals have destroyed the free-flowing river ecosystems where they thrive. Certain irrigation practices degrade soil quality and reduce agricultural productivity.”

So, the answer is: v (Environmental effects)

Question 17: Paragraph E

In paragraph E, take a look at the following sentences.

“. .. … however, the resource planners think about water is beginning to change.” (lines 1-2).

“The focus is slowly shifting back to the provision of basic human and environmental needs as top priority – .. ..” (lines 2-3)

“Some water experts are now demanding that existing infrastructure be used in smarter ways rather than building new facilities,. .. ..” (lines 4-5)

Here, resource planners/water experts = scientists, demanding = call, beginning to change/slowly shifting back, existing infrastructure be used in smarter ways = revision of policy,

So, the answer is: i (Scientists’ call for a revision of policy)

Question 18: Paragraph F

In paragraph F, take a close look at the following sentences.   

In lines 1-2 the writer mentions, “Fortunately – and unexpectedly – the demand for water is not rising as rapidly as some predicted.”

Then, in lines 3-5, the writer says, “Although population, industrial output, and economic productivity have continued to soar in developed nations, the rate at which people withdraw water from aquifers, rivers and lacks has slowed.”

Here, unexpectedly = surprising, the rate.. .. has slowed = downward trend,

So, the answer is: ix (A surprising downward trend in demand for water)

Question 19: Paragraph G

Paragraph G opens with this question, “What explains this remarkable turn of events?”

This suggests that the author will give an explanation of the reasons behind this reduced use of water.

In lines 1-2 the writer mentions, “Two factors: people have figured out how to use water more efficiently, and communities are rethinking their priorities for water use.”

This means that there are two reasons behind reduced water use; first, people have found out ways to use water efficiently, and second, communities now think twice about their priorities for how to use water.

So, the answer is: ii (An explanation for reduced water use)

Question 20: Paragraph H

In paragraph H, we find that the writer feels the need to raise standards in use of water and planning for better infrastructure, “On the other hand, dams, aqueducts and other kinds of infrastructure will still have to be built, particularly in developing countries where basic human needs have not been met. But such projects must be built to higher specifications and with more accountability to local people and their environment than in the past. And even in regions where new projects seem warranted, we must find ways to meet demands with fewer resources, respecting ecological criteria and to smaller budget.”

Here, higher specifications = raise standards,

So, the answer is: x (The need to raise standards)

Questions 21-26 (YES, NO, NOT GIVEN)

[In this type of question, candidates are asked to find out whether:

The statement in the question matches with the claim of the writer in the text- YES

The statement in the question contradicts with the claim of the writer in the text- NO

The statement in the question has no clear connection with the account in the text- NOT GIVEN]

[TIPS: For this type of question, you can divide each statement into three independent pieces and make your way through with the answer.]

Question 21: Water use per person is higher in the industrial world than it was in Ancient Rome.

Keywords for this question: water use, per person, higher, industrial world, Ancient Rome,

The last lines of paragraph A give us the answer to this question. The writer says here, “At the height of the Roman Empire, nine major systems, with an innovative layout of pipes and well-built sewers, supplied the occupants of Rome with as much water per person as is provided in many parts of the industrial world today.”

Here, as much water per person . .. . . as is provided.. .. today means the supply of water is not higher; it is rather equal.

So, the answer is: NO

Question 22: Feeding increasing populations is possible due primarily to improved irrigation systems.

Keywords for this question: feeding, increasing populations, possible, due to, improved irrigation system,

In paragraph B the writer says in lines 5-7, “Food production has kept pace with soaring populations mainly because of the expansion of artificial irrigation systems that make possible the growth of 40% of the world’s food.”

Here, soaring = increasing, because of = due primarily to, artificial irrigation systems = improved irrigation systems,

So, the answer is: YES

Question 23: Modern water systems imitate those of the ancient Greeks and Romans.

Keywords for this question: modern water systems, imitate, ancient Greeks and Romans,

In paragraph C the writer says in lines 2-3, “.. . … half of the world’s population still suffers, with water services inferior to those available to the ancient Greeks and Romans.”

However, we do not find any information that says modern water systems are a copied version of the Ancient Greek and Roman water systems.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

Question 24: Industrial growth is increasing the overall demand for water.

Keywords for this question: industrial growth, increasing, overall demand, water,  

In paragraph F the writer argues in lines 3-5, “.. .. . Although population, industrial output and economic productivity have continued to soar in developed nations, the rate at which people withdraw water from aquifers, rivers and lakes has slowed.”

Here, the rate . .. . has slowed = demand of water is decreasing.

Therefore, the lines directly contradict the information provided in question 24.

So, the answer is: NO

Question 25: Modern technologies have led to reduction in the domestic water consumption.

Keywords for this question: modern technologies, led to, reduction, domestic water consumption,   

In paragraph G the author states in lines 5-7, “.. . . . But since 1980, the amount of water consumed per person has actually decreased, thanks to a range of new technologies that help to conserve water in homes and industry.”

Here, thanks to a range of new technologies = modern technologies have led to,

Therefore, the lines directly match with the statement in question 25.  

So, the answer is: YES

Question 26: In the future, governments should maintain ownership of water infrastructures.

Keywords for this question: future, governments, should maintain, ownership, water infrastructures,

Information relating to government and water infrastructures can only be traced in paragraphs H and E.

In paragraph E, the writer only says: “Some water experts are now demanding that existing infrastructure be used in smarter ways rather than building new facilities.” There is no discussion about ownership whatsoever. 

In paragraph H:  “…dams, aqueducts and other kinds of infrastructure will still have to be built….”.  But again there is a clear indication of ownership here. Therefore, the sentences lack information about whether governments should maintain ownership of water infrastructures or not.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

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Ielts Academic Reading: Cambridge 9, Test 2: Reading Passage 2; Venus In Transit; With Best Solutions And Detailed Explanations

IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge 9, Test 2: Reading Passage 2; Venus in transit; with best solutions and detailed explanations

This IELTS Reading post focuses on all the solutions for IELTS Cambridge 9 Test 2 Reading Passage 2 which is entitled ‘Venus in transit‘ . This is a post for candidates who have major problems in finding Reading Answers. This post can guide you the best to comprehend each Reading answer without facing much difficulty. Tracing IELTS Reading answers is a slow process and I sincerely hope this post can assist you in your IELTS Reading preparation.

Reading Passage 2:

The headline of the passage: Venus in transit

Questions 14-17 (Identifying information):

[This question asks you to find information from the passage and write the number of the paragraph (A, B, C or D … .. ) in the answer sheet. Now, if the question is given in the very first part of the question set, I’d request you not to answer them. It’s mainly because this question will not follow any sequence, and so it will surely kill your time. Rather, you should answer all the other questions first. And just like List of Headings, only read the first two lines or last two lines of the expected paragraph initially. If you find the answers, you need not read the middle part. If you don’t find answers yet, you can skim the middle part of the paragraph. Keywords will be a useful matter here.]

Question 14: examples of different ways in which the parallax principle has been applied

Keywords for the question: different ways, parallax principle, applied,

The first lines of paragraph F indicates that the parallax principle has been applied in several ways using different measurements. “But astronomers labored hard to analyse the results of these expeditions to observe Venus transits. Johann Franz Encke, Director of the Berlin Observatory, finally determined a value for the AU based on all these parallax measurements.”

Here, determined a value . . .. . all these parallax measurements = different ways …. Parallax principle ….applied,

Question 15: a description of an event which prevented a transit observation

Keywords for the question: event, prevented, transit observation,

Take a look at the very last line of paragraph D, “Ironically, after travelling nearly 50,000 kilometres, his view was clouded out at the last moment, a very dispiriting experience.”

Here, his view was clouded out at the last moment = the event which prevented the observation,

Question 16: a statement about potential future discoveries leading on from transit observations

Keywords for the question: potential future discoveries, transit observations,

TIPS: It is generally observed in IELTS exam that any statement indicating “future” is mostly found in the last paragraphs. So, when you are asked to look for ‘future’, go straight to the last paragraph.

In paragraph G, the last lines give us the answer, “. . . But such transits have paved the way for what might prove to be one of the most vital breakthroughs in the cosmos – detecting Earth-sized planets orbiting other stars.”

Here, paved the way for = leading on from, might prove to be = future, breakthroughs = discoveries,

Question 17: a description of physical states connected with Venus which early astronomical instruments failed to overcome

Keywords for the question: physical states, connected, Venus, early astronomical instruments, failed,

The last lines of paragraph E indicate the answer for us. “.. .. . . this showed astronomers that Venus was surrounded by a thick layer of gases refracting sunlight around it, both effects made it impossible to obtain accurate timings.”

Here, made it impossible to obtain = failed to overcome

Questions 18-21: (Matching statements with correct person or people):

(The rules for finding answers to this sort of question are simple. Just find the keywords and read around different names of people or person carefully. Then, give a quick look to check whether there is another statement or idea provided by the same person in the text. If there is, check the reference carefully and decide your answer. Remember, the questions may not follow any sequential order. )

Question 18: He calculated the distance of the Sun from the Earth based on observations of Venus with a fair degree of accuracy.

Keywords for this question: distance, observations of Venus, accuracy,

In paragraph F, the writer says in lines 2-5, “. … . . Johann Franz Encke, Director of the Berlin Observatory, finally determined a value for the AU based on all these parallax measurements: 153,340,000 km. Reasonably accurate for the time, that is quite close to today’s value of 149,597,870 km. . .. ..”

AU (Astronomical Unit) = distance of the Earth from the Sun (in paragraph B)

Here, a fair degree of accuracy = Reasonably accurate,

So, the answer is: D (Johann Franz Encke)

Question 19: He understood that the distance of the Sun from the Earth could be worked out by comparing observations of a transit.

Keywords for this question: distance, worked out by comparing observations,

In paragraph B we find how Edmund Halley realised the observation of a transit could help find out the distance between the Earth and the Sun, “He realised that from different latitudes, the passage of the planet across the Sun’s disc would appear to differ. By timing the transit from two widely-separated locations, teams of astronomers could calculate the parallax angle – the apparent difference in position of an astronomical body due to a difference in the observer’s position. Calculating this angle would allow astronomers to what was then the ultimate goal: the distance of the Earth from the Sun.”

So, the answer is: A (Edmund Halley)

Question 20: He realised that the time taken by a planet to go around the Sun depends on its distance from the Sun.

Keywords for this question: time, around the Sun, distance from the Sun,

Paragraph C talks about Johannes Kepler’s realisation about timing of the orbit done by a planet around the Sun. Here, the writer says, “Johannes Kepler, in the early 17th century, had shown that the distances of the planets from the Sun governed their orbital speeds, which were easily measurable.”

So, the answer is: B (Johannes Kepler)

Question 21: He witnessed a Venus transit but was unable to make any calculations.

Keywords for this question: Venus transit, unable, make calculations,

In lines 4-6 of paragraph D, the writer sympathizes Guillaume Le Gentil which indicates that he was unable to do something, “. . .. . The person who deserves most sympathy is the French astronomer Guillaume Le Gentil.” Then follow the last lines, ” .. . Ironically, after travelling nearly 50,000 kilometres, his view was clouded out at the last moment, a very dispiriting experience.”

Questions 22-26 (TRUE, FALSE, NOT GIVEN)

So, the answer is: C (Guillaume Le Gentil)

In this type of question, candidates are asked to find out whether:

The statement in the question agrees with the information in the passage – The statement in the question contradicts with the information in the passage – If there is no information on this – NOT GIVEN

[For this type of question, you can divide each statement into three independent pieces and make your way through with the answer.]

Question 22: Halley observed one transit of the planet Venus.

Keywords for this question: Halley, observed, transit, Venus,

In the last few lines of paragraph C, the writer says, “. . .and Halley worked out that by using Venus it would be possible to measure the Sun’s distance to 1 part in 500. But there was a problem: transits of Venus, unlike those of Mercury, are rare, occurring in pairs roughly eight years apart every hundred or so years. Nevertheless, he accurately predicted that Venus would cross the face of the Sun in both 1761 and 1769 – though he didn’t survive to see either.“

These lines suggest that Halley predicted the transits of Venus but he was not able to observe any transit because he died before that.

Question 23: Le Gentil managed to observe a second Venus transit.

Keywords for this question: Le Gentil, observe, second Venus transit,

In paragraph D, the writer states in lines 8-11, “Undaunted, he remained south of the equator ….before setting off observe the next transit in the Philippines. Ironically, after traveling nearly 50,000 kilometers, his view was clouded out at the last moment, a very dispiriting experience.”

Here, his view was clouded out = he could not observe the transit,

The lines suggest that Le Gentil was not able to observe a second Venus transit in the Philippines due to the thickness of the cloud.

Question 24: The shape of Venus appears distorted when it starts to pass in front of the Sun.

Keywords for this question: shape, distorted, pass in front of the sun,

In paragraph E, take a look at lines 1-3, “While the early transit timings were as precise as instruments would allow, the measurements were dogged by the ‘black drop’ effect. When Venus begins to cross the Sun’s disc, it looks smeared not circular.”

Here, pass in front of the Sun = cross the Sun’s disc, distorted = smeared not circular

Question 25: Early astronomers suspected that the atmosphere on Venus was toxic.

Keywords for this question: early astronomers, suspected, atmosphere on Venus, toxic,

There is no information in this passage about the atmosphere of Venus.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

Question 26: The parallax principle allows astronomers to work out how far away distant stars are from the Earth.

Keywords for this question: parallax principle, how far, stars, Earth,

In paragraph F, take a look at lines 7-10, “The parallax principle can be extended to measure the distances to the stars. If we look at a star in January – when Earth is at one point in its orbit – it will seem to be in a different position from where it appears six month later. Knowing the width of Earth’s orbit, the parallax shift lets astronomers calculate the distance.”

Answers For Making Every Drop Count

Making Every Drop Count

A - A description of ancient water supplies

The history of human civilisation is entwined with the history of the ways we have learned to manipulate water resources. As towns gradually expanded, water was brought from increasingly remote sources, leading to sophisticated engineering efforts such as dams and aqueducts. At the height of the Roman Empire, nine major systems, with an innovative layout of pipes and well-built sewers, supplied the occupants of Rome with as much water per person as is provided in many parts of the industrial world today.

B - How a global challenge was met

During the industrial revolution and population explosion of the 19th and 20th centuries, the demand for water rose dramatically. Unprecedented construction of tens of thousands of monumental engineering projects designed to control floods, protect clean water supplies, and provide water for irrigation and hydropower brought great benefits to hundreds of millions of people. Food production has kept pace with soaring populations mainly because of the expansion of artificial irrigation systems that make possible the growth of 40 % of the world’s food. Nearly one fifth of all the electricity generated worldwide is produced by turbines spun by the power of falling water.

C - The relevance to health

Yet there is a dark side to this picture: despite our progress, half of the world’s population still suffers, with water services inferior to those available to the ancient Greeks and Romans. As the United Nations report on access to water reiterated in November 2001, more than one billion people lack access to clean drinking water; some two and a half billion do not have adequate sanitation services. Preventable water-related diseases kill an estimated 10,000 to 20,000 children every day, and the latest evidence suggests that we are falling behind in efforts to solve these problems.

D - Environmental effects

The consequences of our water policies extend beyond jeopardising human health. Tens of millions of people have been forced to move from their homes – often with little warning or compensation – to make way for the reservoirs behind dams. More than 20 % of all freshwater fish species are now threatened or endangered because dams and water withdrawals have destroyed the free-flowing river ecosystems where they thrive. Certain irrigation practices degrade soil quality and reduce agricultural productivity. Groundwater aquifers* are being pumped down faster than they are naturally replenished in parts of India, China, the USA and elsewhere. And disputes over shared water resources have led to violence and continue to raise local, national and even international tensions.

*underground stores of water

E - Scientists’ call for a revision of policy

At the outset of the new millennium, however, the way resource planners think about water is beginning to change. The focus is slowly shifting back to the provision of basic human and environmental needs as top priority – ensuring ‘some for all,’ instead of ‘more for some’. Some water experts are now demanding that existing infrastructure be used in smarter ways rather than building new facilities, which is increasingly considered the option of last, not first, resort. This shift in philosophy has not been universally accepted, and it comes with strong opposition from some established water organisations. Nevertheless, it may be the only way to address successfully the pressing problems of providing everyone with clean water to drink, adequate water to grow food and a life free from preventable water-related illness.

F - A surprising downward trend in demand for water

Fortunately – and unexpectedly – the demand for water is not rising as rapidly as some predicted. As a result, the pressure to build new water infrastructures has diminished over the past two decades. Although population, industrial output and economic productivity have continued to soar in developed nations, the rate at which people withdraw water from aquifers, rivers and lakes has slowed. And in a few parts of the world, demand has actually fallen.

G - An explanation for reduced water use

What explains this remarkable turn of events? Two factors: people have figured out how to use water more efficiently, and communities are rethinking their priorities for water use. Throughout the first three-quarters of the 20th century, the quantity of freshwater consumed per person doubled on average; in the USA, water withdrawals increased tenfold while the population quadrupled. But since 1980, the amount of water consumed per person has actually decreased, thanks to a range of new technologies that help to conserve water in homes and industry. In 1965, for instance, Japan used approximately 13 million gallons* of water to produce $1 million of commercial output; by 1989 this had dropped to 3.5 million gallons (even accounting for inflation) – almost a quadrupling of water productivity. In the USA, water withdrawals have fallen by more than 20 % from their peak in 1980.

H - The need to raise standards

On the other hand, dams, aqueducts and other kinds of infrastructure will still have to be built, particularly in developing countries where basic human needs have not been met. But such projects must be built to higher specifications and with more accountability to local people and their environment than in the past. And even in regions where new projects seem warranted, we must find ways to meet demands with fewer resources, respecting ecological criteria and to a smaller budget.

* 1 gallon: 4.546 litres

Ielts Academic Reading Free Samples. Sample 1.2

READING PASSAGE 2

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14–26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.

Life lessons from villains, crooks and gangsters

(A) A notorious Mexican drug baron’s audacious escape from prison in July doesn’t, at first, appear to have much to teach corporate boards. But some in the business world suggest otherwise. Beyond the morally reprehensible side of criminals’ work, some business gurus say organised crime syndicates, computer hackers, pirates and others operating outside the law could teach legitimate corporations a thing or two about how to hustle and respond to rapid change.

(C) Joaquin Guzman, the head of the Mexican Sinaloa drug cartel, for instance, slipped out of his prison cell through a tiny hole in his shower that led to a mile-long tunnel fitted with lights and ventilation. Making a break for it required creative thinking, long-term planning and perseverance – essential skills similar to those needed to achieve success in big business.

(E) By contrast, many legitimate businesses fail because they hesitate to adapt quickly to changing market winds. One high-profile example is movie and game rental company Blockbuster, which didn’t keep up with the market and lost business to mail order video rentals and streaming technologies. The brand has all but faded from view. Liddell argues the difference between the two groups is that criminal organisations often have improvisation encoded into their daily behaviour, while larger companies think of innovation as a set process. “This is a leadership challenge,” said Liddell. “How well companies innovate and organise is a reflection of leadership.”

Left-field thinking

(F) Cash-strapped start-ups also use unorthodox strategies to problem solve and build their businesses up from scratch. This creativity and innovation is often borne out of necessity, such as tight budgets. Both criminals and start-up founders “question authority, act outside the system and see new and clever ways of doing things,” said Goodman. “Either they become Elon Musk or El Chapo.” And, some entrepreneurs aren’t even afraid to operate in legal grey areas in their effort to disrupt the marketplace. The co-founders of music streaming service Napster, for example, knowingly broke music copyright rules with their first online file sharing service, but their technology paved the way for legal innovation as regulators caught up.

(G) Goodman and others believe thinking hard about problem solving before worrying about restrictions could prevent established companies falling victim to rivals less constrained by tradition. In their book The Misfit Economy, Alexa Clay and Kyra Maya Phillips examine how individuals can apply that mindset to become more innovative and entrepreneurial within corporate structures. They studied not just violent criminals like Somali pirates, but others who break the rules in order to find creative solutions to their business problems, such as people living in the slums of Mumbai or computer hackers. They picked out five common traits among this group: the ability to hustle, pivot, provoke, hack and copycat.

(H) Clay gives a Saudi entrepreneur named Walid Abdul-Wahab as a prime example. Abdul-Wahab worked with Amish farmers to bring camel milk to American consumers even before US regulators approved it. Through perseverance, he eventually found a network of Amish camel milk farmers and started selling the product via social media. Now his company, Desert Farms, sells to giant mainstream retailers like Whole Foods Market. Those on the fringe don’t always have the option of traditional, corporate jobs and that forces them to think more creatively about how to make a living, Clay said. They must develop grit and resilience in order to last outside the cushy confines of cubicle life. “In many cases scarcity is the mother of invention,” Clay said.

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